September 2001: impacts on human rights work (2002)
Human Rights after September 11 discusses changes in the international political environment after the suicide attacks on the United States in 2001. It examines threats to civil liberties, discrimination and the polarisation of public opinion, United States exceptionalism, and some of the large human rights challenges that lie ahead.
Biographical affiliation was accurate when research took place.
Mohammad-Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou, Research Director, ICHRP, 1998-2004. For more information on this project, please contact Fairouz El Tom, Outreach and Publications Coordinator, ICHRP.
Additional editing and writing were made by Robert Archer, Executive Director, ICHRP.
Nejla Sammakia, was Civil Affairs Officer with the United Nations Special Mission in Afghanistan until October 2001. Previously, she was Researcher at Human Rights Watch and, earlier, at Amnesty International. Nejla Sammakia has also worked as Gaza Strip and West Bank Correspondent for Agence France Presse (AFP). Her area of expertise is in research and investigative writing with international human rights organisations and in journalism with international news agencies.
Abdullahi An-Na’im, Professor of Law, Emory University, Georgia.
Richard Carver, Director, Oxford Media Research, Oxford.
Stephen Ellis, Professor and Senior Researcher, African Studies Centre, University of Leiden.
Thomas Hammarberg, Chair, ICHRP; Secretary General, Olof Palme International Centre.
Nick Howen, Regional Adviser for Asia-Pacific to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Bangkok.
Makau Mutua, Professor of Law, State University of Buffalo, New York.
Kumi Naidoo, Secretary General and CEO, CIVICUS.
Hugo Slim, Senior Lecturer, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford.
Patricia J. Williams, Professor of Law, Columbia University, New York.
“After the Twin Towers: Human Rights Must not be Cast Aside”, The Guardian, October 1, 2001.
Amnesty International. Memorandum to the US Attorney General — Amnesty International’s Concerns Relating to the Post-September 11 Investigations. London: November 2001.
——— Pursuing Justice, Not Revenge: Amnesty International’s Position on Bringing to Justice those Responsible for the Crimes of September 11 and for Abuses Committed in Afghanistan. London: December 2001.
An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. “Islamic Ambivalence to Political Violence: Islamic Law and International Terrorism”, German Yearbook of International Law 31, 1988, pp. 307-336.
Bayart, Jean-François, Stephen Ellis and Béatrice Hibou. The Criminalisation of the State in Africa. Oxford: James Currey, 1999.
“Bridging the Gap Between Human Rights and Development: From Normative Principles to Operational Relevance”, Speech of Mary Robinson, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, as prepared for delivery, December 3, 2001.
Campbell, Leah M. “Defending Against Terrorism: A Legal Analysis of the Decision to Strike Sudan and Afghanistan”, Tulane Law Review 74, 2000, pp. 1067-1096.
Cassesse, Antonio. “The International Community’s ‘Legal’ Response to Terrorism”, International Comparative Law Quarterly 38, July 1989, pp. 589-608.
Chomsky, Noam. 9-11. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2001.
Duffield, Mark. Global Governance and the New Wars. London: Zed, 2001.
Duffy, Helen. Responding to September 11: The Framework of International Law, Interights paper (parts one and two), London: October 2001.
Dworkin, Ronald. “The Trouble with the Tribunals”, The New York Review of Books 49, 7, April 25, 2002, p. 10.
Ecco, Umberto. “A Propos de la ‘Supériorité’ Occidentale”, Le Monde, October 10, 2001.
Edwards, Michael, and David Hulme. Non-Governmental Organisations: Performance and Accountability. London: Earthscan, 1995.
Falk, Richard. “A Just Response”, The Nation, October 8, 2001.
——— Human Rights Horizons: The Pursuit of Justice in a Globalising World. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Gerges, Fawaz A. “The ‘War’ on Terrorism: A Cultural Perspective”, Ethics and International Affairs 16, 1, 2002, pp. 18-20.
Human Rights Watch. Legal Issues arising from the War in Afghanistan and Related Anti-Terrorism Efforts. Background paper, New York, October 2001.
——— World Report 2002. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2002.
Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
Ignatieff, Michael. “The Attack on Human Rights”, Foreign Affairs 80, 6, November/December, 2001, pp. 102-116.
Klusmeyer, Douglas and Astri Suhrke, “Comprehending ‘Evil’: Challenges for Law and Policy”, Ethics and International Affairs 16, 1, 2002, pp. 27-42.
Koufa, Kalliopi K. “Terrorism and human rights”, Progress report prepared by the Special Rapporteur on Terrorism and Human Rights, UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, June 27, 2001, E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/31.
Lapham, Lewis H. “Spoils of War”, Harper’s Magazine 304, 1822, March 2002, pp. 8-11.
Laqueur, Walter. The Terrorism Reader: An Historical Anthology. London: Wildwood House, 1979.
Lobel, Jules. “The Use of Force to Respond to Terrorist Attacks: The Bombing of Sudan and Afghanistan”, The Yale Journal of International Law 24, 1999, pp. 537-557.
Mamdani, Mahmood. “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim – An African Perspective”, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2002 www.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/mamdani_text_only.htm.
Mutua, Makau. Human Rights — A Political and Cultural Critique. Pittsburgh: Penn Press, 2002.
Naidoo, Kumi and Rajesh Tandon, eds. Civil Society at the Millennium. Connecticut: Kumarian Press, 2000.
Narayan, Deepa and Patti Petesch. Voices of the Poor: From Many Lands. Washington DC: The World Bank, 2002.
Neier, Aryeh. “The Military Tribunals on Trial”, The New York Review of Books XLIX, 2, February 14, 2002, p. 11.
Odinakalu, Chidi Anselm. “Why More Africans don’t Use Human Rights Language”, Human Rights Dialogue 2, 1, Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, 2000.
Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Human Rights and Terrorism”, October 11, 2001.
Rahman, Sabeel. “Another New World Order? Multilateralism in the Aftermath of September 11”, Harvard International Review 23, 4, winter 2002, pp. 40-44.
Responsibility to Protect — Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2001.
Scheffer, David. Options for Prosecuting International Terrorists. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, Special Report, November 14, 2001.
Schrijver, Nico. “Responding to International Terrorism: Moving the Frontiers of International Law for ‘Enduring Freedom’?”, Netherlands International Law Review 48, 3, 2001, pp. 271-291.
Sikkink, Kathryn. “A Human Rights Approach to Sept. 11”, New York: Social Science Research Council, 2002. www.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/sikkink_text_only.htm.
Smith, Karen Elizabeth and Margot Light, eds. Ethics and Foreign Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Wedgwood, Ruth. “The Law’s Response to September 11”, Ethics and International Affairs 16, 1, 2002, pp. 8-13.
Wideman, John Edgard. “The T Word, How Prejudice Fuels the War on Terrorism — Whose War: The Colour of Terror”, Harper’s Magazine 304, 1822, March 2002, pp. 33-38.